Change in prevalence and severity of metabolic syndrome in the Sami and non-Sami population in rural Northern Norway using a repeated cross-sectional population-based study design: the SAMINOR Study
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionBMJ Open. 2019, 9 (6), 1-11. 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027791
Objective To examine the change in both the prevalence and severity of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Sami and non-Sami in Northern Norway due to a lack of knowledge regarding the development of MetS in this population. Design Repeated cross-sectional study. Setting The study is based on data from the SAMINOR 1 Survey (2003–2004, n=6550) and the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey (2012–2014, n=6004), conducted in 10 municipalities in Northern Norway. Participants Men and women aged 40–79 years were invited. We excluded participants not handing in the questionnaire and with missing information concerning ethnicity questions or MetS risk factors resulting in a final sample of 6308 (36.0% Sami) subjects in SAMINOR 1 and 5866 (40.9% Sami) subjects in SAMINOR 2. Outcome measures MetS prevalence was determined using the harmonised Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) criteria, and severity was assessed with the MetS severity Z-score. Generalised estimating equations with an interaction term (survey × ethnicity) were used to compare prevalence and severity between the two surveys while accounting for partly repeated measurements. Results The overall, age-standardised ATP-III-MetS prevalence was 31.2% (95% CI: 29.8 to 32.6) in SAMINOR 1 and 35.6% (95% CI: 34.0 to 37.3) in SAMINOR 2. Both the ATP-III-MetS prevalence and the mean MetS severity Z-score increased between the surveys in all subgroups, except the ATP-III-MetS prevalence in non-Sami women, which remained stable. Over time, Sami men showed a slightly larger increase in MetS severity than non-Sami men (p<0.001): the score increased by 0.20 (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.25) and 0.06 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) in Sami and non-Sami men, respectively. Abdominal obesity increased markedly between the surveys in all subgroups. Conclusion The prevalence and severity of MetS increased over time in rural Northern Norway. Abdominal obesity appeared to drive the increase in ATP-III-MetS prevalence. Sami men had a slightly larger increase in severity than non-Sami.