Multi-Area Balancing Energy Activation Optimization using ENTSO-E Standard Products
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Within a few years, exchange of balancing energy from Frequency Restoration Reserves between European Member States will be coordinated and optimized through common platforms, using standardized balancing products, as required by the European Network Codes. Optimizing activation and exchange of a single balancing energy product with delivery scheduled for a single time period is relatively straightforward using a market-clearing model. Optimizing direct activations or multiple products at once, while satisfying network constraints, however, requires solving a more complicated scheduling optimization problem due to inter-temporal constraints. This paper provides a detailed Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) scheduling formulation of the balancing energy activation optimization problem, taking the network flows and expected future imbalance into account in the optimization. Case study simulations assess impacts from different Standard Product specifications on balancing energy activation costs.