Factors Associated with Enhanced Gross Motor Progress in children with Cerebral Palsy: A Register-based Study
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionPhysical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics. 2018, 38 (5), 548-561. 10.1080/01942638.2018.1462288
Aim: To examine associations between interventions and child characteristics; and enhanced gross motor progress in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Prospective cohort study based on 2048 assessments of 442 children (256 boys, 186 girls) aged 2–12 years registered in the Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Program and the Cerebral Palsy Register of Norway. Gross motor progress estimates were based on repeated measures of reference percentiles for the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) in a linear mixed model. Mean follow-up time: 2.9 years. Results: Intensive training was the only intervention factor associated with enhanced gross motor progress (mean 3.3 percentiles, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.5 per period of ≥3 sessions per week and/or participation in an intensive program). Gross motor function was on average 24.2 percentiles (95% CI: 15.2, 33.2) lower in children with intellectual disability compared with others. Except for eating problems (–10.5 percentiles 95% CI: –18.5, –2.4) and ankle contractures by age (–1.9 percentiles 95% CI: –3.6, –0.2) no other factors examined were associated with long-term gross motor progress. Conclusions: Intensive training was associated with enhanced gross motor progress over an average of 2.9 years in children with CP. Intellectual disability was a strong negative prognostic factor. Preventing ankle contractures appears important for gross motor progress.