The Kelp Laminaria hyperborea as a Bioindicator
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Original versionJournal of Water Technology and Treatment Methods. 2019, 2 (1), . 10.31021/jwt.20192122
During the period of 2015-2017, concentrations of the toxic or essential elements Cd, Hg, Pb, Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were analysed in the species kelp Laminaria hyperborea in an upwelling and nutrient-rich area at Mausund in Frøya municipality in Trøndelag, Norway. Samples were extracted by HNO3 and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In this study, the mean levels in L. hyperborea were significantly different between all years for the elements Hg, Pb, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn, and the study indicated a temporal increase in the concentrations of Hg, Pb, Fe and Zn during the three-year period. The study showed high levels of Cd and Hg, according to levels set by the Regulation of fertilisers, etc. of organic origin . According to European feed legislation regarding the maximum permitted levels in feed ingredients and complete feed stuff, there were elevated levels for Cd in 2016, for Hg in 2017 and for As throughout the three-year period. The European food legislation also sets maximum permitted levels for Cd, Pb and Hg in food supplements. The Hg levels in 2017 also exceeded these levels for supplements. The lamina of the species L. hyperborea can be used as a bioindicator for short-term exposure, and the results from this study can be considered to be reference levels.