Numerical Study on the Effect of a Submerged Breakwater Seaward of an Existing Breakwater for Climate Change Adaption
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In coastal areas, climate change is causing mean sea level rise and more frequent storm surge events. This means the breakwaters are expected to withstand the action of more severe incident waves and larger overtopping rates than they were designed for. Therefore, these impacts may have a negative effect on the functionality such as overtopping above the acceptable limits, in addition to stability of these structures. A breakwater which has been partly damaged by a storm stronger than the design storm has weak spots that can easily be damaged further. One way of protecting these breakwaters subjected to climate change is to build a submerged breakwater on the seaward side. This study focuses on the use of numerical model for optimal dimension of a submerged breakwater to be used as a protective measure for an existing structure. Comparisons are made between transmission coefficient predicted in the numerical model and those calculated from different formulae in literature. The variation in transmission coefficient due to different relative submergence and relative width parameters for waves with different steepness is studied and curves showing the dependence of these parameters on wave transmission are made. These results are then used for a test case in Kiberg, Norway where a submerged breakwater is proposed in front of a existing damaged rubble mound breakwater. The optimal geometry generated on the basis of curves is then implemented in the local-scale finite element wave prediction model, CGWAVE.