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dc.contributor.authorEsaiassen, Eirin
dc.contributor.authorHjerde, Erik
dc.contributor.authorCavanagh, Jorunn Pauline
dc.contributor.authorPedersen, Tanja
dc.contributor.authorAndresen, Jannicke Hanne
dc.contributor.authorRettedal, Siren
dc.contributor.authorStøen, Ragnhild
dc.contributor.authorNakstad, Britt
dc.contributor.authorWillassen, Nils Peder
dc.contributor.authorKlingenberg, Claus
dc.identifier.citationFrontiers in pediatrics. 2018, 6 (November 2018), .nb_NO
dc.description.abstractObjectives: In 2014 probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis; Infloran®) was introduced as standard of care to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in extremely preterm infants in Norway. We aimed to evaluate the influence of probiotics and antibiotic therapy on the developing gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome in extremely preterm infants, and to compare with very preterm infants and term infants not given probiotics. Study design: A prospective, observational multicenter study in six tertiary-care neonatal units. We enrolled 76 infants; 31 probiotic-supplemented extremely preterm infants <28 weeks gestation, 35 very preterm infants 28–31 weeks gestation not given probiotics and 10 healthy full-term control infants. Taxonomic composition and collection of antibiotic resistance genes (resistome) in fecal samples, collected at 7 and 28 days and 4 months age, were analyzed using shotgun-metagenome sequencing. Results: Median (IQR) birth weight was 835 (680–945) g and 1,290 (1,150–1,445) g in preterm infants exposed and not exposed to probiotics, respectively. Two extremely preterm infants receiving probiotic developed NEC requiring surgery. At 7 days of age we found higher median relative abundance of Bifidobacterium in probiotic supplemented infants (64.7%) compared to non-supplemented preterm infants (0.0%) and term control infants (43.9%). Lactobacillus was only detected in small amounts in all groups, but the relative abundance increased up to 4 months. Extremely preterm infants receiving probiotics had also much higher antibiotic exposure, still overall microbial diversity and resistome was not different than in more mature infants at 4 weeks and 4 months. Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation may induce colonization resistance and alleviate harmful effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02197468.
dc.publisherFrontiers Medianb_NO
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleEffects of Probiotic Supplementation on the Gut Microbiota and Antibiotic Resistome Development in Preterm Infantsnb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.source.journalFrontiers in pediatricsnb_NO
dc.source.issueNovember 2018nb_NO
dc.description.localcodeCopyright © 2018 Esaiassen, Hjerde, Cavanagh, Pedersen, Andresen, Rettedal, Støen, Nakstad, Willassen and Klingenberg. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.nb_NO
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for klinisk og molekylær medisin

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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal