Acute heart failure following myocardial infarction: complement activation correlates with the severity of heart failure in patients developing cardiogenic shock
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionESC Heart Failure. 2018, 5 (3), 292-301. 10.1002/ehf2.12266
Aims Heart failure (HF) is an impending complication to myocardial infarction. We hypothesized that the degree of complement activation reflects severity of HF following acute myocardial infarction. Methods and results The LEAF trial (LEvosimendan in Acute heart Failure following myocardial infarction) evaluating 61 patients developing HF within 48 h after percutaneous coronary intervention‐treated ST‐elevation myocardial infarction herein underwent a post hoc analysis. Blood samples were drawn from inclusion to Day 5 and at 42 day follow‐up, and biomarkers were measured with enzyme immunoassays. Regional myocardial contractility was measured by echocardiography as wall motion score index (WMSI). The cardiogenic shock group (n = 9) was compared with the non‐shock group (n = 52). Controls (n = 44) were age‐matched and sex‐matched healthy individuals. C4bc, C3bc, C3bBbP, and sC5b‐9 were elevated in patients at inclusion compared with controls (P < 0.01). The shock group had higher levels compared with the non‐shock group for all activation products except C3bBbP (P < 0.05). At Day 42, all products were higher in the shock group (P < 0.05). In the shock group, sC5b‐9 correlated significantly with WMSI at baseline (r = 0.68; P = 0.045) and at Day 42 (r = 0.84; P = 0.036). Peak sC5b‐9 level correlated strongly with WMSI at Day 42 (r = 0.98; P = 0.005). Circulating endothelial cell activation markers sICAM‐1 and sVCAM‐1 were higher in the shock group during the acute phase (P < 0.01), and their peak levels correlated with sC5b‐9 peak level in the whole HF population (r = 0.32; P = 0.014 and r = 0.30; P = 0.022, respectively). Conclusions Complement activation discriminated cardiogenic shock from non‐shock in acute ST‐elevation myocardial infarction complicated by HF and correlated with regional contractility and endothelial cell activation, suggesting a pathogenic role of complement in this condition.