Lessons learnt from embodied GHG emission calculations in zero emission buildings (ZEBs) from the Norwegian ZEB research centre
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonEnergy and Buildings. 2018, 165 25-34. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.01.025
The objective of this work is to present, evaluate and discuss the calculation methodology and embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emission results from zero emission building (ZEB) case studies from the Norwegian ZEB research centre, to extract design drivers and lessons learnt. In all, two virtual models, and five ZEB pilot buildings are assessed; consisting of three residential, two office and two school buildings. The embodied GHG emission results show that the building envelope (ca. 65%) and production and replacement of materials (ca. 55-87%) are the main contributors to total emissions across the Norwegian ZEB case studies. Although difficult to draw definitive conclusions, this work builds upon the current body of knowledge on embodied GHG emissions in Norwegian ZEBs, and provides some practical indications for embodied GHG emission calculations and reduction strategies in future Norwegian ZEB and zero emission neighbourhood (ZEN) projects.