Assessment of the mobility of Norwegian lower limb prosthetic users and translation and validation of the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey (PLUS-M)
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Background: One of the most important factors for the quality of life among persons with a lower limb amputation is mobility. Today, only one tool for measuring self-perceived mobility is available in Norwegian, and research into the mobility of Norwegian lower limb amputees is scarce. No cross sectional survey on mobility or other factors affecting the lives of Norwegian lower limb amputees has ever been conducted. Purpose: The aim of this study is to conduct a translation and validation of an American instrument for measuring self-perceived mobility (PLUS-M) and use this instrument to examine the mobility of Norwegian prosthetic users. Methods: A two-part study was conducted. A translation of the PLUS-M questionnaire, followed by a cross-sectional survey using the translated instrument with a response from 359 lower limb amputees. Internal consistency analysis and known groups comparison of the Norwegian translation was conducted, and multiple linear regression was used to determine variables associated with self-perceived mobility. Individual samples t-test and ANOVA was used to examine differences in mobility between groups of prosthetic users. Results: The Norwegian version of PLUS-M has excellent internal consistency. Construct validity is high. Factors significantly associated with better self-perceived mobility among Norwegian lower limb prosthetic users are: a more distal level of amputation (B=3.61), a higher education level (B=3.43), larger extent of prosthetic use (B=0.71) and more hours working outside the home each week (B=0.08). Factors associated with lower levels of self-perceived mobility are: Having a dysvascular cause of amputation (B=-5.35), being female (B=-3,98) and increasing age (B=-0.16) Conclusion: The Norwegian translation of PLUS-M is a valid measure of self-reported mobility for Norwegian lower limb prosthetic users. This study supports previous literature that cause of amputation, level of amputation and sex are important variables associated with variance in self-perceived mobility.