Women’s career advancement in Switzerland
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Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this study is to address the research gap on the glass ceiling in Switzerland and to examine employee’s perceptions of the factors in relation to women’s career advancement in Switzerland. The study further aims to examine the effect the relative importance of universal factors and the factors unique to the Swiss context in women’s career advancement. Design/methodology/approach – The nature of this study is quantitative. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 122 employees from public and private sector organizations located in Switzerland. Measures included personal and demographic characteristics, acceptance of women in the workplace, attitudes towards women’s advancement, career encouragement, training and development, organizational practices, organizational culture, mentoring, self-efficacy, career aspiration, networking, motherhood, flexible work arrangements and maternity leave. The dependent variable - women’s career advancement - was measured by capturing respondent’s information about women’s representation in management. Findings – Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were ran to explain the findings. The findings suggest that women’s career advancement is directly influenced by career encouragement, training and development, organizational practices culture, attitudes towards women’s career advancement and how many percentages an employee is working. However, other factors such as self-efficacy, career aspiration, networking, flexible work arrangements, motherhood, maternity leave did not show any direct effects on women’s career advancement. In addition, the findings examine that career encouragement and training and development have an indirect effect through moderation on the link between attitudes towards women’s career advancement and women’s career progression. Practical implications – The findings of this study offer some crucial implications for organizations in Switzerland in regards of their organizational factors. To equally present women in management positions, organizations may seek to train and develop women. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the limited literature on women in management in Switzerland.