Assessment of Gender Inequality in Global Supply Chains
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Gender inequality affects women all around the world in several aspects of the social and economic domain. Such as employment, education, participation in the governments, amongst others. The gender inequality in employment has been analyzed from a territorial perspective. However, there is no understanding of how global supply chains affect the genders participation in the labour force. This study focused on gender inequalities in employment. Exploring how gender equal were the total, export and import-supported employment in ten regions of the world in 1995 and 2011 using a Multi-Regional Input and Output analysis. The results show that in every region males had a higher participation in the labour force than females in 2011, and in four regions the female share did not increase from 1995 to 2011. Women s employment in the exports underperformed in eight of the regions their participation in the domestic-supported employment, this reflects the gender composition of the exporting sectors in these regions. Their participation in the imports suggests that trade well-mixes the gender inequality of the global supply chains. In most of the regions, females were integrated into the workforce in the low and medium-skill levels, while males are occupying most of the high-skilled jobs. The sectors that presented some of the highest participation of women were services and agriculture. These results reflected that female participation in employment is the outcome of the interaction of many aspects of the social and economic domain that shapes the behaviour of genders in each region. The regions presented different shades of gender inequality, thus there is no region that can call its labour force gender equal. The quantification of women s participation in the import, export and domestic supported-employment can shed light on the policy responses that each region needs to implement in order to empower women in their territory and beyond it.