Study on locating transformer internal faults using sweep frequency response analysis
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionElectric power systems research. 2017, 145 55-62. 10.1016/j.epsr.2016.11.016
As an extensive network of resistances, capacitances, and inductances, a transformer has inherent characteristic parameters that are functions of frequency. The form of these functions is predicated on the geometric design of the transformer and materials that comprise it. Any change in the structure of a transformer will be reflected in its frequency response characteristics. Of the possible changes that can take place in a transformer structure, an internal short circuit is one of the far-reaching incidents that has been recently reported for many wind-farm transformers. Detecting the location of an internal short circuit that has occurred in a transformer winding is therefore beneficial in the repair process and also in improving future designs. In an effort to identify trends with inter-turn fault locations and frequency responses, this research investigates the effect of the location of deliberately initiated internal faults on parameters such as transfer voltages and input impedances by means of sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA). The analysis of three different model transformers with different core and winding designs shows several trends in frequency response patterns, depending on the location of the internal short circuits. The paper discusses such trends as a potential use of SFRA in locating inter-turn winding failures that may result in noticeable short circuits.