Explanation of Bubble Nucleation Mechanisms: A Gradient Theory Approach
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJournal of the Electrochemical Society. 2018, 165 (10), E504-E512. http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/2.1031810jes
A Helmholtz free energy description of the four nucleation mechanisms used to explain the bubble nucleation in electrochemical systems is presented. The mechanisms are compared based on the nucleation energy barrier and critical nuclei radius. The theoretical analysis sheds light on the effect of parameters like contact angle on the electrode surface and pre-existing gas bubbles on nucleation energy barrier. A free energy based description of surface tension (planar interface) is also obtained from the thermodynamic framework.