New winds, new rules : standards in the German offshore wind market and their Influence on Norwegian companies from the foundations-related segment of the value chain
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- Institutt for geografi 
Such global challenges as climate change require actions from the nation states, companies and consumers. Development of renewable energy is one of the solutions to the problem. Among different renewable energy sources offshore wind has a special place due to its stability and costs reduction potential. Germany as a pioneer in offshore wind created a framework that intends to help the further development of offshore wind energy in the country. As a maturing industry, though, German offshore wind could not be characterised by an established standards framework when the work on the first project was started. This paper investigates the standards that Norwegian companies from foundations-related segment of value chain had to deal with when they came to the German offshore wind market, whether set by institutions or by companies. It also tries to shed light on the development process of the standards and companies requirements and the implications they have on the case companies. The case companies perceive both national standards in Germany and clients requirements as different from what they are familiar with from offshore oil and gas sector. They experienced wider use of onshore practices in Germany compared to third countries. Acting as initiator and experts during standards development, German domestic companies could have significant influence on the shape of standards. Onshore practices used by the domestic companies could have been transferred into the new developing sector. Industrial history of the country can have an influence on the development of national standards. When establishing activities in a new market, standards framework and its background have to be taken into account.