P38 MAPK signaling and phosphorylations in the BRCT1 domain regulate XRCC1 recruitment to sites of DNA damage
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionScientific Reports. 2017, 7(1). 10.1038/s41598-017-06770-3
XRCC1 is a scaffold protein involved in base excision repair and single strand break repair. It is a phosphoprotein that contains more than 45 phosphorylation sites, however only a few of these have been characterized and connected to specific kinases and functions. Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) are mediators of cellular stress responses, and here we demonstrate that p38 MAPK signaling is involved in phosphorylation of XRCC1 and regulation of recruitment to oxidative stress. Inhibition of p38 MAPK caused a marked pI shift of XRCC1 towards a less phosphorylated state. Inhibition of p38 also increased the immediate accumulation of XRCC1 at site of DNA damage in a poly(ADP)-ribose (PAR) dependent manner. These results suggest a link between PARylation, p38 signaling and XRCC1 recruitment to DNA damage. Additionally, we characterized two phosphorylation sites, T358 and T367, located within, or close to, the phosphate-binding pocket of XRCC1, which is important for interaction with PAR. Mutation of these sites impairs recruitment of XRCC1 to DNA damage and binding to PARP1/PAR. Collectively, our data suggest that phosphorylation of T358 and T367 and p38 signaling are important for proper regulation of XRCC1 recruitment to DNA damage and thereby avoidance of potential toxic and mutagenic BER-intermediates.