Frequency domain analysis of robust demodulators for high-speed atomic force microscopy
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionAmerican Control Conference (ACC). 2017, 1562-1567. 10.23919/ACC.2017.7963175
A fundamental but often overlooked component in the z-axis feedback loop of the atomic force microscope (AFM) operated in dynamic mode is the demodulator. Its purpose is to obtain a preferably fast and low-noise estimate of amplitude and phase of the cantilever deflection signal in the presence of sensor noise and additional distinct frequency components. In this paper, we implement both traditional and recently developed robust methods on a LabVIEW digital processing system for high-bandwidth demodulation. The techniques are rigorously compared experimentally in terms of measurement bandwidth, implementation complexity and robustness to noise. We conclude with showing high-speed tapping-mode AFM images in constant height, highlighting the significance of an adequate demodulator bandwidth.