Detention and Retention Behavior of Four Extensive Green Roofs in Three Nordic Climate Zone
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Climate change coupled with increasing urbanization has made extensive green roofs, both for retrofitting and new developments, an attractive way to bring nature back to cities, while managing stormwater. This study has investigated extensive green roof retention and detention performance based on 3–8 years of field data from four Norwegian locations representing typical cold and wet Nordic climates, also comparing several different commercial configurations. Accumulated retention was found to be 11–30% annually and 22–46% in May through October. The performance was found to be strongly dependent in evapotranspiration and less dependent on material storage capacities. Estimates for available storage capacities for precipitation events larger than 5 mm are given and can be useful for design purposes. Median observed peak attenuation compared to the precipitation ranged from 65–90% depending on locations and configurations. The event-based approach for evaluating detention was found to be challenging due to the nature of the precipitation in the studied locations. An alternative approach using flow duration curves based on the observed time series was tested and found to give valuable information on runoff patterns from green roofs and to be useful for evaluating green roof performance in relation to local requirements.