Sparse Signal Representation using Overlapping Frames
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Signal expansions using frames may be considered as generalizations of signal representations based on transforms and filter banks. Frames for sparse signal representations may be designed using an iterative method with two main steps: (1) Frame vector selection and expansion coefficient determination for signals in a training set, – selected to be representative of the signals for which compact representations are desired, using the frame designed in the previous iteration. (2) Update of frame vectors with the objective of improving the representation of step (1). In this thesis we solve step (2) of the general frame design problem using the compact notation of linear algebra. This makes the solution both conceptually and computationally easy, especially for the non-block-oriented frames, – for short overlapping frames, that may be viewed as generalizations of critically sampled filter banks. Also, the solution is more general than those presented earlier, facilitating the imposition of constraints, such as symmetry, on the designed frame vectors. We also take a closer look at step (1) in the design method. Some of the available vector selection algorithms are reviewed, and adaptations to some of these are given. These adaptations make the algorithms better suited for both the frame design method and the sparse representation of signals problem, both for block-oriented and overlapping frames. The performances of the improved frame design method are shown in extensive experiments. The sparse representation capabilities are illustrated both for one-dimensional and two-dimensional signals, and in both cases the new possibilities in frame design give better results. Also a new method for texture classification, denoted Frame Texture Classification Method (FTCM), is presented. The main idea is that a frame trained for making sparse representations of a certain class of signals is a model for this signal class. The FTCM is applied to nine test images, yielding excellent overall performance, for many test images the number of wrongly classified pixels is more than halved, in comparison to state of the art texture classification methods presented in . Finally, frames are analyzed from a practical viewpoint, rather than in a mathematical theoretic perspective. As a result of this, some new frame properties are suggested. So far, the new insight this has given has been moderate, but we think that this approach may be useful in frame analysis in the future.