Determination of anti-anisakis simplex antibodies and relationship with αβ and γδ lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with Crohn's Disease
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionDigestive Diseases and Sciences. 2017, 62 (4), 934-943. 10.1007/s10620-017-4473-6
Background The etiology of Crohn’s disease (CD) is still unknown although new theories are based on defects in innate immunity. We have previously shown a decrease in γδ T cells in CD patients. Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of anti-A. simplex immunoglobulins in CD patients. The diminution of γδ T cells in the peripheral blood and intestinal mucosa of CD patients may create a state of immunosuppression that would facilitate A. simplex infection. Aims To study the antibody responses to Anisakis antigens in Crohn’s disease patients and its relationship with αβ and γδ T cell subsets. Methods We recruited 81 CD patients and 81 healthy controls. αβ and γδ T cell subsets and anti-A. simplex antibodies were measured. Results Levels of anti-A. simplex IgG and IgM were significantly increased in CD patients. Almost 20% of CD patients were positive for IgG and IgM anti-A. simplex versus only 3.7 and 2.5%, respectively, in normal subjects. However, lower specific IgA levels were observed in the group of CD patients versus healthy subjects. We found an association between CD3 + CD8 + γδ subset and IgM anti-A. simplex levels. In ileal cases and stricturing behavior of CD, we observed the highest levels of specific antibodies with the exception of anti-A. simplex IgA. Conclusions The relationship of specific antibodies with a γδ T cell deficiency makes these cell candidates to play a role in the immune response against Anisakis. In addition, anti-Anisakis antibodies could be considered as markers of risk of progression in CD.