Extraction, Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Saponins from Herniaria incana
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- Institutt for kjemi 
Species of the Herniaria genus have been reported to have several medicinal uses. Two of the species from this genus, Herniaria glabra and Herniaria hirsuta, have both been documented to contain saponins. This can explain the health benecial use of these plant species, since saponins are known for their many biological properties. However, the lack of information on one of their relatives, Herniaria incana, makes this species a target for further investigation. The aim of this master thesis is to determine the total saponin content of H. incana, as well as to extract, isolate and closely investigate saponin compounds in this species. The total saponin content was determined by colorimetry, using ginsenoside Rb1 as standard. Measurements were carried out at 550 nm, and the results gave a total saponin content of 35.2 ug ginsenoside equivalent saponin content per gram of the plant extract. A saponin was isolated from H. incana by means of TLC and column chromatography. The structure was elucidated by the use of a combination of 1D (1H, 13C) and 2D NMR techniques (COSY-45, edited HSQC, HMBC, H2BC, HSQC-TOCSY, NOESY and 1H,1H J - resolved experiment) as O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->4)-O-b-D- glucopyranosyl-( 1->6)-O-[b-D-6-O-acetylglucopyranosyl-(1->2)]-b-D-glucopyranosyl Medicagen-28-ate. The monosaccharide sequence was also confirmed by ESI-CID.