A new laboratory apparatus for the measurement of seismic dispersion under deviatoric stress conditions
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionGeophysical Prospecting. 2016, 64 (4), 789-798. 10.1111/1365-2478.12425
A better understanding of seismic dispersion and attenuation of acoustic waves in rocks is important for quantitative interpretation of seismic data, as well as for relating seismic data, sonic-log data, and ultrasonic laboratory data. In the present work, a new laboratory setup is described, allowing for combined measurements of quasistatic deformations of rocks under triaxial stress, ultrasonic velocities, and dynamic elastic stiffness (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) at seismic frequencies. The setup has been used mainly for the study of shales. For such rocks, it is crucial that the saturation of the samples is preserved, which requires fast sample mounting. The design of our setup, together with a technique that was developed for rapid mounting of strain gauges onto the sample and subsequent sealing of the sample, allows for sample preservation, which is of particular importance for shales. The performance of the new experimental setup and sample mounting procedure is demonstrated with test materials (aluminium and polyetheretherketone) and two different shale types (Mancos shale and Pierre shale). Furthermore, experimental results are presented that demonstrate the capability of measuring the impact of saturation, stress, and stress path on seismic dispersion. For the tests with Mancos shale and Pierre shale, large dispersion (up to 50% in Young's modulus normal to bedding) was observed. Increased water saturation of Mancos shale results in strong softening of the rock at seismic frequencies, whereas hardening is observed at ultrasonic frequencies due to an increase in dispersion, counteracting the rock softening. The Poisson's ratio of Mancos shale strongly increases with the level of saturation but appears to be nearly frequency independent. We have found that the different types of shale exhibit different stress sensitivities during hydrostatic loading and that the stress sensitivity is different at seismic and ultrasonic frequencies.