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dc.contributor.authorZhou, Bin
dc.contributor.authorBentham, James
dc.contributor.authorDi Cesare, Mariachiara
dc.contributor.authorBixby, Honor
dc.contributor.authorDanaei, Goodarz
dc.contributor.authorCowan, Melanie J.
dc.contributor.authorPaciorek, Christopher J.
dc.contributor.authorSingh, Gitanjali M
dc.contributor.authorHajifathalian, Kaveh
dc.contributor.authorBennett, James E.
dc.contributor.authorTaddei, Cristina
dc.contributor.authorBilano, Ver
dc.contributor.authorCarrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.
dc.contributor.authorDjalalinia, Shirin
dc.contributor.authorKhatibzadeh, Shahab
dc.contributor.authorLugero, Charles
dc.contributor.authorPeykari, Niloofar
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Wan Zhu
dc.contributor.authorLu, Yuan
dc.contributor.authorStevens, Gretchen A.
dc.contributor.authorRiley, Leanne M.
dc.contributor.authorBovet, Pascal
dc.contributor.authorElliott, Paul
dc.contributor.authorGu, Dongfeng
dc.contributor.authorIkeda, Nayu
dc.contributor.authorJackson, Rod T
dc.contributor.authorJoffres, Michel
dc.contributor.authorKengne, André Pascal
dc.contributor.authorLaatikainen, Tiina
dc.contributor.authorLam, Tai Hing
dc.contributor.authorLaxmaiah, Avula
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Jing
dc.contributor.authorMiranda, J. Jaime
dc.contributor.authorMondo, Charles K
dc.contributor.authorNeuhauser, Hannelore K
dc.contributor.authorSundström, Johan
dc.contributor.authorSmeeth, Liam
dc.contributor.authorSorić, Maroje
dc.contributor.authorWoodward, Mark
dc.contributor.authorEzzati, Majid
dc.contributor.authorAbarca-Gómez, Leandra
dc.contributor.authorAbdeen, Ziad A.
dc.contributor.authorAbdul Rahim, Hanan
dc.contributor.authorAbu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.
dc.contributor.authorAcosta-Cazares, Benjamin
dc.contributor.authorAdams, Robert
dc.contributor.authorAekplakorn, Wichai
dc.contributor.authorAfsana, Kaosar
dc.contributor.authorAguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.
dc.contributor.authorAgyemang, Charles
dc.contributor.authorAhmadvand, Alireza
dc.contributor.authorAhrens, Wolfgang
dc.contributor.authorAl Raddadi, Rajaa
dc.contributor.authorAl Woyatan, Rihab
dc.contributor.authorAli, Mohamed M
dc.contributor.authorAlkerwi, Ala'a
dc.contributor.authorAly, Eman
dc.contributor.authorAmuzu, Antoinette
dc.contributor.authorAmouyel, Philippe
dc.contributor.authorAndersen, Lars Bo
dc.contributor.authorAnderssen, Sigmund Alfred
dc.contributor.authorÄngquist, Lars
dc.contributor.authorAnjana, Ranjit Mohan
dc.contributor.authorAnsong, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorAounallah-Skhiri, Hajer
dc.contributor.authorAraújo, Joana
dc.contributor.authorAriansen, Inger Kristine
dc.contributor.authorAris, Tahir
dc.contributor.authorArlappa, Nimmathota
dc.contributor.authorAryal, Krishna
dc.contributor.authorArveiler, Dominique
dc.contributor.authorAssah, Felix K.
dc.contributor.authorAssunção, Maria Cecília
dc.contributor.authorAvdicová, Mária
dc.contributor.authorAzevedo, Ana
dc.contributor.authorAzizi, Fereidoun
dc.contributor.authorBabu, Bontha V
dc.contributor.authorBahijri, Suhad
dc.contributor.authorBalakrishna, Nagalla
dc.contributor.authorBandosz, Piotr
dc.contributor.authorBanegas, Jose R
dc.contributor.authorBarbagallo, Carlo M.
dc.contributor.authorBarcelo, Alberto
dc.contributor.authorBarkat, Amina
dc.contributor.authorBarros, Aluisio J.D.
dc.contributor.authorBarros, Mauro V
dc.contributor.authorBata, Iqbal
dc.contributor.authorBatieha, Anwar M.
dc.contributor.authorBaur, Louise A.
dc.contributor.authorBeaglehole, Robert
dc.contributor.authorBen Romdhane, Habiba
dc.contributor.authorBenet, Mikhail
dc.contributor.authorBenson, Lowell S.
dc.contributor.authorBernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
dc.contributor.authorBernotiene, Gailute
dc.contributor.authorBettiol, Heloisa
dc.contributor.authorBhagyalaxmi, Aroor
dc.contributor.authorBharadwaj, Sumit
dc.contributor.authorBhargava, Santosh K.
dc.contributor.authorBi, Yufang
dc.contributor.authorBikbov, Mukharram
dc.contributor.authorBjerregaard, Peter
dc.contributor.authorBjertness, Espen
dc.contributor.authorEkelund, Ulf
dc.contributor.authorGraff-Iversen, Sidsel
dc.contributor.authorJanszky, Imre
dc.contributor.authorKolle, Elin
dc.contributor.authorKrokstad, Steinar
dc.contributor.authorLaugsand, Lars Erik
dc.contributor.authorMathiesen, Ellisiv B.
dc.contributor.authorSen, Abhijit
dc.contributor.authorSteene-Johannessen, Jostein
dc.contributor.authorVatten, Lars Johan
dc.contributor.authorWilsgaard, Tom
dc.identifier.citationThe Lancet. 2016, 389 (10064), 37-55.nb_NO
dc.description.abstractBackground Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Methods For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. Findings We pooled 1479 studies that had measured the blood pressures of 19·1 million adults. Global age-standardised mean systolic blood pressure in 2015 was 127·0 mm Hg (95% credible interval 125·7–128·3) in men and 122·3 mm Hg (121·0–123·6) in women; age-standardised mean diastolic blood pressure was 78·7 mm Hg (77·9–79·5) for men and 76·7 mm Hg (75·9–77·6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24·1% (21·4–27·1) in men and 20·1% (17·8–22·5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1·13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. The global increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure is a net effect of increase due to population growth and ageing, and decrease due to declining age-specific prevalence. Interpretation During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe.nb_NO
dc.description.sponsorshipWellcome Trust.nb_NO
dc.titleWorldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participantsnb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.source.journalThe Lancetnb_NO
dc.description.localcodeCopyright © The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)nb_NO
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for samfunnsmedisin
cristin.unitnameHelseundersøkelsen i Nord-Trøndelag

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