Characterisations and Interventions of the Water-Energy Nexus in Urban Water Systems
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This study explores the water-energy nexus of urban water services and the water-related energy demands that stem from them. The initial objective provides insight into the development of nexus analyses through a review of international literature. Based on data from recent urban water system metabolism studies, and process factors identified in literature, an in-depth analysis was also performed to explain the variations in energy consumption and emission intensities per unit of water demand. There is in fact a wide variation that is explained by local economic, natural, social, cultural and historical developments. Exploratory impact assessments on intervention options in Oslo demonstrated a range of material and energy efficiency gains, and that taken as a whole can result in a sum scenario of greenhouse gas emission reductions.