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dc.contributor.authorStranden, Magne
dc.contributor.authorSolvin, Håvard
dc.contributor.authorFors, Egil Andreas
dc.contributor.authorGetz, Linn Okkenhaug
dc.contributor.authorHelvik, Anne-Sofie
dc.identifier.citationBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016, 17(1):477nb_NO
dc.description.abstractBackground Leading theories about the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia focus on central nervous dysregulation or sensitization, which can cause altered perception. There is growing evidence that fibromyalgia involves altered perception not only of pain, but also other sensory stimuli. On this basis, we investigated whether individuals with fibromyalgia are more likely to report subjective loss of hearing, adjusted for audiometrically measured loss of hearing, compared to persons without any musculoskeletal pain disorders. In addition, we studied persons with other musculoskeletal pain than fibromyalgia and persons who did not have any musculoskeletal pain. Methods The study includes 44 494 persons from the second health survey in Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT2) who had undergone audiometry and answered a comprehensive questionnaire that mapped fibromyalgia, musculoskeletal pain at various sites and subjective hearing loss. Respondents with other musculoskeletal pain problems than fibromyalgia were divided into two groups with respectively localized and widespread musculoskeletal pain. Data were analyzed with logistic regression models adjusting for age, education, anxiety, depression and hearing thresholds. Results In adjusted analysis, individuals with fibromyalgia had increased likelihood to report subjective hearing loss, compared to persons without fibromyalgia or other musculoskeletal pain (OR 4.578, 95% CI 3.622–5.787 and OR 4.523, 95% CI 3.077–6.647 in women and men). Furthermore, people with local and widespread musculoskeletal pain not diagnosed with fibromyalgia, also had increased likelihood to report subjective hearing loss, compared to people with no musculoskeletal pain. This relationship was greater for widespread pain than for localized pain (OR 1.915, 95% CI 1.627–2.255, and 1.796, 95% CI 1.590–2.029, in women and men with local musculoskeletal pain and OR 3.073, 95% CI 2.668-3.539, OR 3.618, 95% CI 3.225–4.058, in women and men with widespread pain, respectively). Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that fibromyalgia is related to a general dysregulation of the central nervous system. The same might also be the case for other local and, in particular, other widespread, musculoskeletal pain.nb_NO
dc.publisherBioMed Centralnb_NO
dc.subjectFibromyalgia – Subjective hearing loss – Musculoskeletal pain – Central sensitivity syndrome – Chronic activation theory of stress – Allostatic loadnb_NO
dc.titleAre persons with fibromyalgia or other musculoskeletal pain more likely to report hearing loss? A HUNT studynb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.source.journalBMC Musculoskeletal Disordersnb_NO
dc.description.localcodeThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.nb_NO

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