SAND & FINES IN MULTIPHASE OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION
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This thesis work focuses on multiphase flow in the oil and gas industry. As differences in temperatures and pressures come to play from the reservoir to the surface, in tubing and in pipelines, gas tend to dissolve and evolve out from oil, with water and solid particles making their way into the production flow stream, giving rise to a multiphase gas-liquid-solid production and transportation. A review of sand and fines production worldwide was carried out and concluded that sand production is a common occurrence in the petroleum industry, present in all the major oil producing regions of the world. Multiphase flow patterns were equally discussed in this work stating the different flow regimes available in the vertical and horizontal pipe system. HYSYS was used to obtain fluid properties for volatile oil used in the determination of major parameters such as fluid velocities, hold-ups and pressure drop. Results did show that particle velocity to a large extent depended on the fluid velocity, which would always be higher with increasing amounts of gaseous phase present as experienced in annular and slug flow. The velocity profile chart showed the sand peak velocities in annular and slug flow as 13.2 m/s and 9.8 m/s. It was also observed that pressure drop along a pipe will under normal conditions tend give a positive slope when plotted against superficial fluid velocities.