The association between physical activity, vitamin D and 10 years change in blood pressure in young to middle- aged adults : a prospective HUNT study
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Introduction: Prospective studies on physical activity, vitamin D in relation to changes in blood pressure are lacking. This HUNT study aimed to investigate the association between physical activity and vitamin D levels in relation to changes in blood pressure/hypertension. We also aimed to investigate the potentially modifiable effect of PA on vitamin D- blood pressure relationship and vice- versa. Material and methods: The study population was taken from the HUNT study. From a random sample of 5723 subjects with measured serum 25(OH)D levels, 2949 men and women 19-55 years old without baseline hypertension or medications use were followed up for 10 years. Statistics Linear regression was used to investigate the association between PA, serum 25(OH)D levels and a 10 year change in BP. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship of PA, vitamin D with risk of future hypertension. Results: During 10 years follow- up, high and moderate PA was associated with a respectively -3.39 and -2.92 mmHg lower change in SBP, compared to the inactive group. A modifiable effect in the high serum 25(OH)D subgroup was observed, PA was not associated with a reduced risk of future hypertension. No significant association were observed between serum 25(OH)D levels and change in BP, or future risk of hypertension. No modifying effect of PA was seen. Conclusion: PA is associated with a lower increase in SBP, but not associated with a future risk for hypertension. Our data indicates there may be a modifiable effect of vitamin D serum 25(OH)D levels. Additionally more research in larger samples with longer follow- up, is necessary to conclude if serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with changes in BP or future risk of hypertension.