Ice-Induced Loads on Ship Hulls
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- Institutt for marin teknikk 
The calculation of ice-induced loads on ships is still mainly based on empirical models. In order to gain a better physical understanding of the loading on ice-going vessels, Det Norske Veritas launched an ice load monitoring project involving full scale trials with the coastguard vessel KV Svalbard during the winters 2006, 2007 and 2011. The results from the full scale measurements conducted with KV Svalbard has been topic of several earlier master's thesis at NTNU,The master thesis consists of four parts. The first part is a literature review of the mechanical and physical properties of sea ice.The second part is a review of the rule sets developed by DNV and the IACS regarding vessels operating in ice infested waters. Both design principles and numerical values have been evaluated. The main difference between the designs principles used, is that IACS base their rules on a plastic method of approach, while DNV uses an elastic method. Despite the difference in the design principles, when comparing their numerical values turned out to be quite similar. The DNV rules are in general most conservative for the smaller vessels and the IACS rules the most conservative for large vessels. The third part consists of a finite element study of a part of the bow on KV Svalbard. A systematic load scheme is used, consisting of 102 load cases. For each of the stress factors there where made graphs that showed the stress at the sensor location when moving the patch load. The sensor mounted on the frame were able to measure load that was within the frame loading area and sensor mounted on the stringer could measure stress for all of the load cases in the horizontal directions. One of the explanations for this is that the stringer transfers stress from the load patch area that could be measured by the sensors.The last part consists of a comparison between measurements from the full scale trials and the results from the 102 load cases. This comparison is done through a weighted summation method where 5 different load cases are combined to represent the measured result, and a load factor is calculated for each load case for its contribution of the measured results. The stress component used in this comparison is the shear stress tau xy The load cases were tested against the 11 measurements from the full scale trials. There were in total 11 load cases that gave positive factors for all of the 11 measurements at the same time. A figure was made to show which load cases were likely to contribute in the solution of the load cases. Load cases inside the frame loading area have the largest load factors for the solution of measurements.This load decision scheme is very sensitive to the selection of load cases and boundary conditions. A change of the boundary conditions for the model was tried out for 7 load cases, and with changed boundary conditions, only 5 gave positive load factors.The results of this thesis shows that is possible to find many solution to the measured result by combining many load case, but is it not possible to decide the solution.