Time-dependent boundary conditions for multiphase flow
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In this thesis a set of boundary conditions for multiphase flow is suggested. Characteristic-based boundary conditions are reviewed for single-phase flow. The problem of open-boundary conditions is investigated, and to avoid drifting values, the use of control functions is proposed. The use of control functions is also verified with a new test which assesses the quality of the boundary conditions. Particularly, P- and PI-control functions are examined. PI-controllers have the ability to specify a given variable exactly at the outlet as well as at the inlet, without causing spurious reflections which are amplified. Averaged multiphase flow equations are reviewed, and a simplified model is established. This model is used for the boundary analysis and the computations. Due to the averaging procedure, signal speeds are reduced to the order of the flow speed. This leads to numerical challenges. For a horizontal channel flow, a splitting of the interface pressure model is suggested. This bypasses the numerical problems associated with separation by gravity, and a physical realistic model is used. In this case, the inviscid model is shown to possess complex eigenvalues, and still the characteristic boundary conditions give reasonable results. The governing equations are solved with a Runge-Kutta scheme for the time integration. For the spatial discretisation, a finite-volume and a finite-difference method are used. Both implementations give equivalent results. In single-phase flow, the results improve significantly when a numerical filter is applied. For two-dimensional two-phase flow, the computations are unstable without a numerical filter.