Validation of the Short Version (TLS-15) of the Triangular Love Scale (TLS-45) across 37 Languages
Kowal, Marta; Sorokowski, Piotr; Dinić, Bojana M.; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Gjoneska, Biljana; Frederick, David A.; Pfuhl, Gerit; Milfont, Taciano L.; Bode, Adam; Aguilar, Leonardo; García, Felipe E.; Roberts, S. Craig; Abad-Villaverde, Beatriz; Kavčič, Tina; Miroshnik, Kirill G.; Ndukaihe, Izuchukwu L. G.; Šafárová, Katarína; Valentova, Jaroslava V.; Aavik, Toivo; Blackburn, Angélique M.; Çetinkaya, Hakan; Duyar, Izzet; Guemaz, Farida; Ishii, Tatsunori; Kačmár, Pavol; Natividade, Jean C.; Nussinson, Ravit; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Sofian B.; Pacquing, Ma. Criselda T.; Ponnet, Koen; Wang, Austin H.; Yoo, Gyesook; Amin, Rizwana; Pirtskhalava, Ekaterine; Afhami, Reza; Arvanitis, Alexios; Duyar, Derya Atamturk; Besson, Théo; Boussena, Mahmoud; Can, Seda; Can, Ali R.; Carneiro, João; Castro, Rita; Chubinidze, Dimitri; Čunichina, Ksenija; Don, Yahya; Dural, Seda; Etchezahar, Edgardo; Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Frackowiak, Tomasz; Moharrampour, Nasim Ghahraman; Yepes, Talía Gómez; Grassini, Simone; Jovic, Marija; Kertechian, Kevin S.; Khan, Farah; Kobylarek, Aleksander; Križanić, Valerija; Lins, Samuel; Mandzyk, Tetyana; Manunta, Efisio; Martinac Dorčić, Tamara; Muthu, Kavitha N.; Najmussaqib, Arooj; Otterbring, Tobias; Park, Ju Hee; Pavela Banai, Irena; Perun, Mariia; Reyes, Marc Eric S.; Röer, Jan P.; Şahin, Ayşegül; Sahli, Fatima Zahra; Šakan, Dušana; Singh, Sangeeta; Smojver-Azic, Sanja; Söylemez, Sinem; Spasovski, Ognen; Studzinska, Anna; Toplu-Demirtas, Ezgi; Urbanek, Arkadiusz; Volkodav, Tatiana; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Yaakob, Mohd Faiz Mohd Y.; Yusof, Mat Rahimi; Zumárraga-Espinosa, Marcos; Zupančič, Maja; Sternberg, Robert J.
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionArchives of Sexual Behavior. 2023, . 10.1007/s10508-023-02702-7
Love is a phenomenon that occurs across the world and affects many aspects of human life, including the choice of, and process of bonding with, a romantic partner. Thus, developing a reliable and valid measure of love experiences is crucial. One of the most popular tools to quantify love is Sternberg’s 45-item Triangular Love Scale (TLS-45), which measures three love components: intimacy, passion, and commitment. However, our literature review reveals that most studies (64%) use a broad variety of shortened versions of the TLS-45. Here, aiming to achieve scientific consensus and improve the reliability, comparability, and generalizability of results across studies, we developed a short version of the scale—the TLS-15—comprised of 15 items with 5-point, rather than 9-point, response scales. In Study 1 (N = 7,332), we re-analyzed secondary data from a large-scale multinational study that validated the original TLS-45 to establish whether the scale could be truncated. In Study 2 (N = 307), we provided evidence for the three-factor structure of the TLS-15 and its reliability. Study 3 (N = 413) confirmed convergent validity and test–retest stability of the TLS-15. Study 4 (N = 60,311) presented a large-scale validation across 37 linguistic versions of the TLS-15 on a cross-cultural sample spanning every continent of the globe. The overall results provide support for the reliability, validity, and cross-cultural invariance of the TLS-15, which can be used as a measure of love components—either separately or jointly as a three-factor measure.