Prereduction Behavior of Manganese Ores With Solid Carbon and in CO/CO<inf>2</inf> Gas Atmosphere
Peer reviewed, Journal article
MetadataShow full item record
Original versionMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B. 2022, 53B (5), 3292-3305. 10.1007/s11663-022-02611-5
The prereduction reactions in the submerged arc furnace (SAF) are highly decisive of the total carbon, and energy consumption of the ferromanganese process. Therefore, understanding the dependency of prereduction behavior on ore characteristics and furnace conditions is of paramount importance. Prereduction behavior of Comilog, Nchwaning and UMK ores with solid carbon was studied in an open 75 kVA induction furnace set up simulating the conditions of an industrial SAF. In addition, the ores were thermogravimetrically studied with non-isothermal heating to 1000 °C in a flowing 70/30 CO/CO2 atmosphere. Gasification of carbon according to Boudouard reaction was considered significant for carbonate ores in induction furnace setup. UMK had a greater extent of prereduction compared to Nchwaning which is low in carbonates and Comilog which is known to have a higher CO reactivity at similar CO contents. TGA rate curves shows that prereduction of UMK ore occurred with two major distinctive steps. The first one was a combination of prereduction reactions and decomposition of carbonates with a peak temperature of 700 °C, and the second peak was the decomposition of calcite at 900 °C. The O/Mn ratio for UMK shows that prereduction is already completed prior to the second decomposition peak at 900 °C. In addition to prereduction reactions, Nchwaning is also characterized by an endothermic step which is decomposition of carbonates at 900 °C. Comilog ore produced the most fines followed by Nchwaning and lastly UMK on decrepitation.