Effect of Moisture, Hydrogen, and Water–Gas Shift Reaction on the Prereduction Behavior of Comilog and Nchwaning Manganese Ores
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B. 2022, 53 2104-2116. 10.1007/s11663-022-02511-8
The ore–gas reactions in the prereduction zone in a ferromanganese furnace are largely decisive of the overall energy efficiency, carbon consumption, and climate gas emissions in ferromanganese production. An increased understanding of the prereduction zone is thus vital for optimization of the furnace operation. The ore–gas reactions are well known to be governed by kinetics rather than thermodynamics. The raw materials contain various amounts of both chemically bound and surface moisture when fed to the furnace, which may influence the reaction kinetics. This paper presents the investigation of the potential influence of moisture on the prereduction kinetics of two commercial manganese ores, i.e., Comilog and Nchwaning. TGA experiments were carried out by comparing dry and wet ore, as well as introducing H2(g) or H2O(g) to the CO–CO2 gas mixture.