Prevalence trends of depression and anxiety symptoms in adults with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes 1995–2019: The HUNT studies, Norway
Peer reviewed, Journal article
MetadataShow full item record
Original versionBMC Psychology. 2021, 9 130-?. 10.1186/s40359-021-00636-0
Background Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common in adults with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM). The literature on depression and anxiety in CVDs and DM populations is extensive; however, studies examining these relationships over time, directly compared to adults without these conditions, are still lacking. This study aimed to investigate trends in depression and anxiety symptom prevalence over more than 20 years in adults with CVDs and DM compared to the general population. Methods We used data from the population-based Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway, including adults (≥ 20 years) from three waves; the HUNT2 (1995–97; n = 65,228), HUNT3 (2006–08; n = 50,800) and HUNT4 (2017–19; n = 56,042). Depressive and anxiety symptom prevalence was measured independently by the Hospital Anxiety and Depressions scale (HADS) in sex-stratified samples. We analyzed associations of these common psychological symptoms with CVDs and DM over time using multi-level random-effects models, accounting for repeated measurements and individual variation. Results Overall, the CVDs groups reported higher levels of depression than those free of CVDs in all waves of the study. Further, depressive and anxiety symptom prevalence in adults with and without CVDs and DM declined from HUNT2 to HUNT4, whereas women reported more anxiety than men. Positive associations of depression and anxiety symptoms with CVDs and DM in HUNT2 declined over time. However, associations of CVDs with depression symptoms remained over time in men. Moreover, in women, DM was associated with increased depression symptom risk in HUNT2 and HUNT4. Conclusions Depression and anxiety symptoms are frequent in adults with CVDs. Further, our time trend analysis indicates that anxiety and depression are differentially related to CVDs and DM and sex. This study highlights the importance of awareness and management of psychological symptoms in CVDs and DM populations.