Reinforcement ability of lignocellulosic components in biocomposites and their 3D printed applications – A review
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Original versionComposites Part C: Open Access. 2021, 6, . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomc.2021.100171
Biocomposites based on lignocellulosic components (e.g. pulp fibers, nanocellulose and lignin) are of interest as sustainable replacements for thermoplastic fossil-based materials, which find their application in household items, construction, automotive, 3D-printing, etc. Nanocellulose, a nano-structural component of pulp fibers, is considered having potential as a high-performance reinforcement for bioplastics, due to its high aspect ratio and potentially strong mechanical properties. Lignin, a biodegradable polymer isolated from pulp fibers, can be considered as an essential bioresource for the production of biocomposites, due to the aromatic structure and functional groups. In this review the reinforcing ability of selected lignocellulosic components and their applicability in 3D printing is presented, considering their mechanical properties. At this point, there are challenges in processing nanocellulose that may reduce its attractiveness as a reinforcement in thermoplastic biocomposites. The objective of the review is to identify current challenges and opportunities for the application of 3D printed lignocellulosic biocomposites. Optimization of 3D printing process parameters are considered to be a key to further improve the mechanical properties of the end-product. Importantly, this review revealed that greater efforts in mechanical fatigue research may contribute to assess and improve the potential of lignocellulosic reinforcements for structural applications.