Association of Individual Factors with Simulator Sickness and Sense of Presence in Virtual Reality Mediated by Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs)
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Many studies have attempted to understand which individual differences may be related to the symptoms of discomfort during the virtual experience (simulator sickness) and the generally considered positive sense of being inside the simulated scene (sense of presence). Nevertheless, a very limited number of studies have employed modern consumer-oriented head-mounted displays (HMDs). These systems aim to produce a high the sense of the presence of the user, remove stimuli from the external environment, and provide high definition, photo-realistic, three-dimensional images. Our results showed that motion sickness susceptibility and simulator sickness are related, and neuroticism may be associated and predict simulator sickness. Furthermore, the results showed that people who are more used to playing videogames are less susceptible to simulator sickness; female participants reported more simulator sickness compared to males (but only for nausea-related symptoms). Female participants also experienced a higher sense of presence compared to males. We suggest that published findings on simulator sickness and the sense of presence in virtual reality environments need to be replicated with the use of modern HMDs.