Do Engaged Workers Attend Work While Sick More Often?: A Thesis on the Relationship Between Organizational Norms, Work Engagement, and Presenteeism
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- Institutt for psykologi 
The aim of this thesis is to investigate how presenteeism research can be reconciled with positive psychology through exploring the relationship between organizational attendance pressure-and adjustment norms, work engagement and presenteeism. The working model this thesis uses to look at this adapts the job demands–resources (JD-R) model to predict whether workers will choose to exhibit presenteeism or be absent in the context of Johns’s dynamic model of presenteeism and absenteeism (2010). Participants were 280 workers from a wide variety of sectors who answered a questionnaire that asked about their psychosocial work environment. The design was cross-sectional. Covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) was used to test the hypotheses. The results suggest that the motivational process of the JD-R model does not explain presenteeism to a statistically significant degree. However, the positive relationship between organizational adjustment norms and work engagement was significantly greater for workers with a high level of perceived organizational attendance pressure norms versus those who perceived it to be low. This thesis concludes that how presenteeism is measured and from what sectors workers are recruited to be respondents may influence the results and interpretations of it. Future research that investigates the relationship between work engagement and presenteeism may be warranted for finding new ways of measuring presenteeism and to recruit respondents who work in places where presenteeism is less likely to be perceived as negative for their health (e.g.,knowledge workers in universities).