Connections between grammatical gender and occupational gender stereotypes
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- Institutt for psykologi 
The intention behind this thesis was to expand knowledge of how language structures affect stereotyped beliefs. More specifically, it examined how linguistic differences between languages affected the interactions between different stereotype categories (i.e., gender and occupation stereotypes). The research conducted in this thesis expands knowledge relating to the importance and content of occupational and gender stereotypes. In order to do so, this thesis examines the interaction between occupational and gender stereotypes in isolation from, and interacting with, grammatical gender. Four aims were addressed throughout this thesis. The first aim was to determine the attributes associated with occupational roles, use these to determine occupational stereotypes, and to examine whether the gender stereotypes related to certain occupations affect perceptions of the importance of each occupational stereotype. The second aim was to examine whether gender ratio can be considered a representative measure of gender stereotypicality. Most central to the thesis, aim three and four were to examine the importance of occupational and gender stereotypes in isolation from (aim three), and interacting with (aim four), grammatical gender. Four central findings can be extracted from this thesis. Firstly, five occupational stereotypes were determined, with gender stereotypicality found to affect the perceived importance of each stereotype to at least some degree. Along with traditional gender stereotype categories (i.e., feminine and masculine), the categories of unfeminine and unmasculine also emerged. Secondly, gender ratio was indeed found to be representative of gender stereotypicality. Thirdly, there is a strong interaction between occupational stereotypes and gender stereotypes, with masculine stereotyped occupations perceived as more suitable for men than unsuitable for women, feminine stereotyped occupations perceived as more suitable for women than unsuitable for men, and non-stereotyped occupations perceived as equally suitable for both women and men. Fourthly, grammatical gender was found to interact with occupational and gender stereotypes, with semi-gendered language speakers relying significantly less on occupational gender stereotypes to guide social perception than fully and non-gendered language speakers, and with non-gendered language speakers relying less on occupational gender stereotypes to guide social perception than fully gendered language speakers. Globally, the results of this thesis suggest that occupational and gender stereotypes are rich, interesting constructions that they interact strongly with the level of grammatical gender within a language. Suggestions are also provided in this thesis for applying what was found in wider examinations related to the interplay between linguistic properties and stereotypes. In exploring the interplay between grammatical gender and occupational gender stereotypes, this thesis successfully reached its aim of expanding knowledge related to the interplay between linguistic factors and stereotype beliefs. The results found in this thesis have wider implications for examinations of differences between stereotypical categories. Most prominently, the finding of unfeminine and unmasculine stereotype categories suggest that the methods used in this thesis (specifically attribute naming and rating tasks) may be useful in identifying and exploring counter-stereotypical categories (i.e., unmasculine and unfeminine categories). Secondly, these results support the use of the experimental methods utilised in this thesis (word association, attribute naming, attribute rating) in exploring the interactions between gender stereotypical categories in a more general sense.
Has partsPaper 1: Kim, Jonathan D.; Gabriel, Ute; Gygax, Pascal. Testing the effectiveness of the Internet-based instrument PsyToolkit: A comparison between web-based (PsyToolkit) and lab-based (E-Prime 3.0) measurements of response choice and response time in a complex psycholinguistic task. PLOS ONE 2019 ;Volum 14.(9) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221802 This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)
Paper 2: Kim, J. D., Gabriel, U., Gygax, P., & Siyanova-Chanturia, A., (2020) Investigating the link between gender stereotypicality and occupational stereotype content through a bottom-up approach
Paper 3: Kim, J. D., Gabriel, U., & Gygax, P., (2020) Language structures and gender stereotyped perception: the effect of differences in the level of grammatical gender between fully, semi-, and nongendered languages