Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorGulla, Christine
dc.contributor.authorSelbæk, Geir
dc.contributor.authorFlo, Elisabeth
dc.contributor.authorKjome, Reidun Lisbet Skeide
dc.contributor.authorKirkevold, Øyvind
dc.contributor.authorHusebø, Bettina
dc.identifier.citationBMC Geriatrics. 2016, 16:115 .nb_NO
dc.description.abstractBackground Neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as affective symptoms, psychosis, agitation, and apathy are common among nursing home patients with and without dementia. Treatment with one or more psychotropic drug is often without explicit clinical indication, despite low treatment efficacy, and potential side effects. We aim to investigate the multi-psychotropic drug use to identify factors and patient characteristics associated with multi-use. Methods We analysed three cohorts from 129 Norwegian nursing homes, collected between 2004 and 2011. Patients (N = 4739) were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Nursing Home version (NPI-NH), Clinical Dementia Rating scale, and Physical Self Maintenance Scale. We used ordinal logistic regression to analyse associations between psychotropics (antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anti-dementia drugs), patient characteristics, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results Patients used on average 6.6 drugs; 27 % used no psychotropics, 32 % one, and 41 % multiple psychotropic drugs (24 % two, 17 % ≥3). Thirty-nine percent were prescribed antidepressants, 30 % sedatives, 24 % anxiolytics, and 20 % antipsychotics. The total NPI-NH score was associated with multi-use (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.02–1.03), and increased from a mean of 13.5 (SD 16.3) for patients using none, to 25.5 (21.8) for patients using ≥3 psychotropics. Affective symptoms (depression and anxiety) were most strongly associated with multi-psychotropic drug use (OR 1.10, 95 % CI: 1.09–1.12). Female gender, independency in daily living, younger age, dementia, and many regular drugs were also associated with multi-use. Conclusion Forty-one percent were exposed to multi-psychotropic drug prescriptions. Contrary to current evidence and guidelines, there is an extensive use of multiple psychotropic drugs in patients with severe NPS and dementia.nb_NO
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleMulti-psychotropic drug prescription and the association to neuropsychiatric symptoms in three Norwegian nursing home cohorts between 2004 and 2011nb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.source.journalBMC Geriatricsnb_NO
dc.description.localcode© 2016 The Author(s).Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, andreproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link tothe Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.nb_NO
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for helsevitenskap Gjøvik

Files in this item


This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal