Metacognitions and desire thinking in nicotine dependence: Result from a cross-sectional study
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- Institutt for psykologi 
Both metacognitions about smoking and desire thinking have been associated with nicotine dependence. Moreover, metacognitions have been suggested to contribute to the dysregulation of desire thinking and lead to a pathological increase in craving leading to nicotine dependence. The aim of this study was to further explore the role of both metacognitions about smoking and desire thinking in nicotine dependence. The sample consisted of 446 (293 women) self-declared smokers and snus (a moist smokeless snuff) users. Path analysis supported a slightly modified version of the original model to have a good fit to the data. This model proposes that positive metacognitive beliefs about snus or smoking are associated with the activation of desire thinking, which leads to a conscious allocation of attentional resources towards snus- or smoking-related information (imaginal prefiguration) and prolonged self-talk regarding reasons to engage in snus or smoking behavior (verbal perseveration). This is then associated with nicotine dependence and negative metacognitive beliefs about snus or smoking. Lastly, there was a direct association between positive metacognitions and nicotine dependence. These findings further support the application of metacognitive theory to better understand and develop potential interventions regarding nicotine dependence.