A new method for assessing anisotropy in fused deposition modeled parts using computed tomography data
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionThe International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 2019, 105 (1-4), 47-65. 10.1007/s00170-019-04081-7
Voids in fused deposition modeled (FDM) parts are assumed to be a key driver for their anisotropic behavior. However, these assumptions are based on investigations of voids using only 2D data (microscopy images). This paper presents a new method to measure such voids by analyzing 3D-data of from X-ray computed tomography (CT), and application of this data for assessment of mechanical parameters. The article is divided into three parts, where the first part elaborates on a proposed method to assess and characterize the void geometry throughout uniaxial printed FDM parts using CT-data. The second part presents an investigation of the void configurations in samples manufactured using different process parameters, aiming to understand how variation in extrusion rate and compensation for non-linear dynamic extrusion behavior affects the void sizes. The third part displays how the information regarding void sizes could be further related to global mechanical properties, using a multiscale finite element approach. The present method of CT-data analysis gives a clear overview of the spatial variation of the void geometry, and findings from the investigated samples suggest that the size of voids have a large non-random spatial variation, highly dependent on the turning points of the toolpaths, and also significantly affected by accumulation of excess material. Printing at a low extrusion rate increases the void sizes considerably, while implementation of an extrusion dynamics compensation algorithm was found to have low impact on the void sizes. The multiscale finite element approach predicts anisotropic elastic behavior, significantly more compliant in the vertical and transversal direction, relative to the printing direction of the infill. It also predicts a non-isotropic strain energy density throughout the specimen, where the location and magnitude of the most energy dense locations vary significantly for different directions of loading, which implicates an anisotropic behavior in terms of failure, in accordance with literature.