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dc.contributor.authorMugisha, James
dc.contributor.authorMuyinda, Herbert
dc.contributor.authorMalamba, Samuel
dc.contributor.authorKinyanda, Eugene
dc.identifier.citationBMC Psychiatry. 2015, 15 (48), .nb_NO
dc.description.abstractBackground Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major public health burden in conflict areas. However, it is not known for how long and by how much the observed high rates of MDD seen in conflict settings persist into the post-conflict period. Methods A cross sectional survey was employed seven years after the conflict in northern Uganda had ended in the three districts of Amuru, Gulu and Nwoya. Results The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 24.7% (95% CI: 22.9%-26.4%). The distribution by gender was females 29.2% (95% CI: 14.6%-19.5%) and males 17.0% (95% CI: 26.9%-31.5%). The risk factors for MDD fell under the broad domains of socio-demographic factors (female gender, increasing age, being widowed and being separated/divorced); distal psychosocial vulnerability factors ( being HIV positive, low social support, increasing war trauma events previously experienced, war trauma stress scores previously experienced, past psychiatric history, family history of mental illness, negative coping style, increasing childhood trauma scores, life-time attempted suicide, PTSD, generalized anxiety disorder and alcohol dependency disorder) and the psychosocial stressors (food insufficiency, increasing negative life event scores, increasing stress scores). ‘Not receiving anti-retroviral therapy’ for those who were HIV positive was the only negative clinical and behavioral outcome associated with MDD. Conclusions These findings indicate that post-conflict northern Uganda still has high rates for MDD. The risk factors are quite many (including psychiatric, psychological and social factors) hence the need for effective multi-sectoral programs to address the high rates of MDD in the region. These programs should be long term in order to address the long term effects of war. Longitudinal studies are recommended to continuously assess the trends of MDD in the region and remedial action taken.nb_NO
dc.publisherBMC (part of Springer Nature)nb_NO
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleMajor depressive disorder seven years after the conflict in northern Uganda: burden, risk factors and impact on outcomes (The Wayo-Nero Study)nb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.source.journalBMC Psychiatrynb_NO
dc.description.localcode© 2015 Mugisha et al.; licensee BioMed Central. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.nb_NO
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for samfunnsmedisin og sykepleie

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal