Life history theory, metacognition and rumination in a normal population
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- Institutt for psykologi 
The aim of the present study was to investigate how Life history theory and Metacognitive theory describes variation in depressive symptoms and rumination in a normal population. The study is based on an online survey, where the participants (N=374) were asked to answer a questionnaire consisting of questions derived from Becks Depression Inventory, Ruminative Response Scale, MINI-K, Multidimensional Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale and Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale. In consistence with previous research, it was found that females scored higher on both negative mood and all types of rumination (action rumination, state rumination, and the subscales of state rumination; brooding and pondering) than males, and that the sex difference in negative mood was mediated by brooding. Among the different types of rumination, brooding was found to be the strongest predictor for negative mood, and variance in scores on negative mood. Positive metacognitions predicted negative mood, where all types of rumination mediated the relation. Both negative metacognitions concerning uncontrollability and harm, as well as negative metacognitions concerning interpersonal and social consequences of rumination was found to mediate the relation between brooding and negative mood. In line with the metacognitive model of depression, the present study indicates that metacognitions explain a considerable amount of variance in scores on negative mood and rumination. Impulsiveness was found to have a significant positive non-linear relation to negative mood, and explained a small, but significant amount of variance in negative mood. Future development of better life history measures may be useful for improving further investigation of Life history theory.