Associations of Fine Motor Skills, Visual Processing Abilities, and Psychological Resources with Reading Skills in Young Adults - Investigating Gender Differences
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- Institutt for psykologi 
Although gender differences in reading skills is well established in childhood and adolescence, it is unclear whether these differences exist at later ages. Considering the prevalence of gender differences, it is important to investigate possible explanations for why these differences occur. Thus, this study aimed at examining possible associations of fine motor skills, visual processing abilities, grit and mindset with reading skills, as well as whether gender differences within these factors are present in young adults. The sample included 61 Norwegian young adults, and were tested in reading skill, fine motor skill, coherent motion and form thresholds, grit and mindset. Descriptive statistics and independent t-test were conducted to examine gender-related differences. Furthermore, a Pearson correlation, as well as Fisher r-to-z transformation, was performed to examine the various associations, and whether these associations differed between gender. Results indicated no significant gender differences in the included factors. Furthermore, a significant correlation was only found between fine motor skill and reading skill. Although no significant gender differences were found in the correlation coefficients, several tendencies of stronger correlations among males than females were present, suggesting that females might exhibit more specific reading skills than males. The absence of gender differences in this study lay further emphasis on the importance of experience, suggesting that boys might simply need more reading experience in youth. Possible interventions that might increase boys reading experience are proposed, including developing higher levels of grit and growth mindset. In sum, more research is necessary to examine gender differences in these factors, as well as their associations to reading skills at different groups of age.