Long-term treatment outcome for adolescents with temporomandibular pain
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionActa Odontologica Scandinavica. 2018, 76 (3), 153-160. 10.1080/00016357.2017.1394490
Objectives: This study aims to evaluate long-term, self-perceived outcome in adulthood for individuals treated as adolescents for temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain in two previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Materials and methods: The study included 116 subjects (81% females) treated for frequent TMD pain in two separate RCTs 5–21 (M = 14.8, SD =4.9) years previously. Treatment consisted of occlusal appliance (OA) (n = 41, 35.3%) or relaxation training (RT) combined with information for the control (Co) group (n = 50, 43.1%), both compared to non-responders receiving additional, sequential treatment (ST) in a crossover study (n = 25, 21.6%). Participants answered a questionnaire on their experience of frequency and intensity of TMD pain impaired chewing capacity and daily social activities, help-seeking behaviour and treatment, general health, other pain, and depressive symptoms. Results: Older participants reported lower levels of frequency and intensity of TMD pain, impairment, and depressive symptoms, as well as better general health. Females reported more frequent and more intense TMD pain, greater impairment and more often reported ‘other pain’ compared to males. Non-responders receiving ST experienced significantly more TMD, and other pain and higher impairment levels compared to other groups. Those treated with an OA had sought additional treatment significantly less often since the RCTs than ST and RT/Co-treated individuals. Conclusions: Adolescents treated with OA showed somewhat better sustained improvement over the extended follow-up period than those treated with RT/Co. Non-responders to treatment and females exhibited a poorer outcome. These groups need particular attention and extended or different treatments to achieve a better long-term outcome.