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dc.contributor.authorPaulsen, Christian Oen
dc.contributor.authorBroks, Runar Larsen
dc.contributor.authorKarlsen, Morten
dc.contributor.authorHjelen, Jarle
dc.contributor.authorWestermann, Ida
dc.identifier.citationMetals. 2018, 8 (7), .nb_NO
dc.description.abstractAn in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) study was conducted on a super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) containing 0%, 5% and 10% σ-phase. The material was heat treated at 850 °C for 12 min and 15 min, respectively, to achieve the different amounts of σ-phase. The specimens were investigated at room temperature and at −40 °C. The microstructure evolution during the deformation process was recorded using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) at different strain levels. Both σ-phase and χ-phase were observed along the grain boundaries in the microstructure in all heat treated specimens. Cracks started to form after 3–4% strain and were always oriented perpendicular to the tensile direction. After the cracks formed, they were initially arrested by the matrix. At later stages of the deformation process, cracks in larger σ-phase constituents started to coalesce. When the tensile test was conducted at −40 °C, the ductility increased for the specimen without σ-phase, but with σ-phase present, the ductility was slightly reduced. With larger amounts of σ-phase present, however, an increase in tensile strength was also observed. With χ-phase present along the grain boundaries, a reduction of tensile strength was observed. This reduction seems to be related to χ-phase precipitating at the grain boundaries, creating imperfections, but not contributing towards the increase in strength. Compared to the effect of σ-phase, the low temperature is not as influential on the materials performance.nb_NO
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleMicrostructure Evolution in Super Duplex Stainless Steels Containing σ-Phase Investigated at Low-Temperature Using In Situ SEM/EBSD Tensile Testingnb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.description.localcode© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for materialteknologi

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