Colloid-probe AFM studies of the surface functionality and adsorbed proteins on binary colloidal crystal layers
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionRSC Advances. 2017, 7 (12), 7329-7337. 10.1039/c6ra28491d
Colloid-probe-AFM has been widely used to measure the forces of interaction between two surfaces such as particles of different size and functionality or a flat surface and a particle in aqueous environments. However, the applicability of colloid-probe AFM to detect different surface chemistries on chemical or protein patterned surfaces has not been demonstrated. We show that the technique can be used to distinguish the regions of different surface chemistries or biomolecules located within a patterned surface in buffer solution. Our previously developed method, based on evaporation induced self-assembly, was used to generate binary colloidal crystal (bCC) layers of different chemical and/or protein patterns. Particles of different size and functionality, with or without adsorbed protein(s), were used to decorate solid supports with the bCCs. The results from the force measurements on the patterned surfaces revealed that the probe experiences both strong or weak repulsive interactions and attractive interactions depending on the net surface charge present on the particles within the bCC patterns. Measurements on bCC patterns where one particle is coated with a single protein demonstrate that the technique can also be used to probe surface diffusion of adsorbed proteins. Therefore, we are able to detect whether a protein remains adsorbed or diffuses to a region on the bCC containing no proteins. Furthermore, the applicability of this technique was extended to detect the presence of two different biomolecules (i.e., lysozyme and bovine serum albumin adsorbed on both the large and small particles) within the protein patterned bCC surface by their different interaction forces. The study demonstrates that colloid-probe AFM can be used to discriminate between the surface properties of binary colloid crystal patterned surfaces where the binary patterns are comprised of particles of either different surface chemistry or particles with different adsorbed proteins.