Systematic revision of Chone Krøyer, 1856, Dialychone Claparède, 1870 and Paradialychone Tovar-Hernández, 2008 (Sabellidae: Annelida) in Norwegian waters
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- Institutt for biologi 
The species of Chone, Dialychone and Paradialychone (Sabellidae: Annelida) in Norwegian waters are assessed using morphological and molecular data. The monophyly of Chone, Dialychone, Paradialychone and Euchone is tested and discussed. Sixty- six morphological characters are obtained by different means of microscopic techniques, Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) and photography. Fifty-seven sequences of the mitochrondrial gene Cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) are included of which 25 sequences are newly sequenced, the rest obtained from GenBank. Molecular analyses of molecular data are conducted, including Bayesian inference, Maximum Likelihood, genetic distances and statistical parsimony haplotype network. Results from Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood appear consistent, and the presence of 7 clades is indicated, some well supported. Morphologically distinct members of genera that are currently considered as different appear as sistergroups with very low genetic distance. Neither Chone, Dialychone nor Euchone appear monophyletic considering the current classification. Paradialychone is only represented by one sequence in the dataset, but morphological diagnostic features of this genus appear in other clades. Alternatives to diagnostic characters are discussed. At least 3 species that are morphologically and genetically distinct are new to science. A key based on the dataset of this study is provided to the species present in Norwegian waters, including the 3 new species. This indicates that there are 9 species of Chone and 4 species of Dialychone present in Norwegian waters. This study provides new data to these groups, which indicates that current classifications of these genera are not congruent with molecular characters.