The Effect of Cell-Penetrating Peptide on the Lipid Composition of Multiple Myeloma Cell Line JJN-3
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Lipidomics is a relatively new field in life science, it is based in the study of pathways and networks of cellular lipids in a cell. Lipidomics is a subclass of metabolomics, one of the omics disciplines that the recent decade has greatly contributed to the increased understanding of biological systems. The technological advancement in chromatography and mass spectrometry the last years, can be claimed as one of the main reason that lipidomics has had such a rise the last few years. New technology have made it easier to examine the complex mixture of lipids that exists in biological samples. Lipids are a diverse class of molecules, which are categorized into eight different categories based on their chemical structure: glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, fatty acyls, sphingolipids, sterol lipids, prenol lipids, saccharolipids and polyketides. Lipids and their metabolism are important factor in many diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic diseases.The work presented here has made an assessment of the lipidome of JJN-3 cells, a multiple myeloma cell line. This was done using liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry (quadrupole and time-of-flight mass analysers). The lipidome of JJN-3 comprises of mainly phospholipids, with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine being the most abundant. There were also a high amount of glycerolipids and fatty acyls, and traces of sphingolipids, sterol lipids, polyketides and prenol lipids in the samples. A comparison between JJN-3 and two other cell lines, DU145 and HEK293 were conducted. There is clearly a difference between the three cell lines. HEK293 has a higher abundance of glycerolipids and has the least amount of phospholipids of the three cell lines. The main experiments tested to see if the peptide ATX-101 had any effect on the lipid composition of JJN-3 cells. The result showed that exposure to a low concentration of the peptide over several days, does not alter the lipid composition. An experiment with a higher concentration of ATX-101 was also conducted. This show that the samples treated with ATX-101 do have some changes in their lipid composition. However, due to the nature of the samples at time zero, the result are inconclusive and the experiment would have to be redone to see if the result are conclusive. It is, however, possible to conclude that the cell-penetrating peptide is not the cause of these alteration.