Anhedonic depression, history of depression, and anxiety as genderspecific risk factors of myocardial infarction in healthy men and women: The HUNT study
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionHealth Psychology Open 2014 10.1177/2055102914557658
This prospective study examines gender-specific psychological risk factors of myocardial infarction. Out of 41,248 participants free of coronary heart disease at baseline, 822 cases of myocardial infarction were identified in the Nord- Trøndelag Health Study or the mortality register. The participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist–hip ratio were measured by medical staff. Smoking, diabetes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and history of depressive episode were self-reported. Anhedonic depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D ≥8) was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in women but not in men. Gender difference in risk estimate based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D was significant (p < .01). History of depressive episode was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in men. Symptoms of anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A ≥8) reduced the risk of having a myocardial infarction.