Emerging flame retardants and their effects on growth and development in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica)
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- Institutt for biologi 
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDICPP) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) are (re)emerging flame retardants widely detected in the environment and biota. These compounds have shown a potential to bioaccumulate in organisms, and DP has shown to biomagnify through the food chain. Maternal transfer of both the contaminants in birds has been demonstrated through reported levels in eggs. Information about their potential toxicity in wildlife, especially in avian species, is very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects and interaction effects of both flame retardants on development and growth in avian species, using the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model organism. Eggs of Japanese quail were injected with low, medium and high doses (10, 100 and 1000 ng/g egg, respectively) of either TDICPP, DP, or a 1:1 mixture of both. Biometrical measurements of body weight, head length, and tarsus length were taken regularly from newly hatched chicks for a total of 14 days. Neither the compounds nor the mixture had an effect on hatching success, size of the newly hatched chicks, overall growth rate, or body condition (at 12 days old). These results suggest that in ovo exposure to TDCIPP and DP resulted in no observable effects on development or growth in two weeks old Japanese quails. Because TDICPP and DP are ubiquitous in the environment and biota, and are frequently and increasingly used in industry, potential toxicological effects of these flame retardants need to be further investigated.