Substance use in children of parents with chronic pain - the HUNT study
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJournal of Pain Research 2014, 7:483-494 http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S67819
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate possible associations between parental chronic pain and smoking, alcohol, and drug use in adolescent offspring. Methods: Cross-sectional data from Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 3), a Norwegian population-based health survey conducted in the period 2006–2008 was utilized. The present sample consisted of adolescents aged 13–18 years (n=3,227) for whom information was available on maternal and paternal health statuses. Results: Results from multivariable ordinal and binary logistic regression analyses, adjusting for potential confounding factors (child age, parental age, education, and organ specific illness) indicated that the estimated odds ratios (OR) for smoking (OR =1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.00, 3.05], P=0.049) and alcohol intoxication (drunkenness) (OR =1.56, 95% CI [1.05, 2.33], P=0.029) were higher for boys whose mother and father had chronic pain, compared with boys for whom neither parent had chronic pain. These associations were slightly attenuated by additional adjustment for pain-related factors, such as parental smoking and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Parental chronic pain was not significantly associated with girls’ levels of substance use. There were significant interaction effects between parental chronic pain and child sex on offspring’s alcohol intoxication and smoking. Conclusion: The present study expands on existing knowledge and provides groundwork for preventive and specific measures targeting substance use in families burdened with parental chronic pain.